Electro-Magnetic Pulse  / Coronal Mass Ejection
History, Characteristics, and Protection    (Update  12 Jan, 2017)


   Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) is a man made phenomenon that can negatively impact electronics and electrical systems on the earth or portions of the earth.
   Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) is a natural solar event that can negatively impact electrical systems on the earth or portions of the earth.

      Solar magnetic storm --  Coronal Mass Ejection - CME
      It is important to understand that severe solar storms produce only the E3 component that burns out power grid transformers and induce DC-like currents in very long electrical conductors.  Solar storms do not produce the fast E1 component that can be so damaging to electronics.  Some astronomical phenomena can produce a gamma ray burst that could produce an extremely large E1 pulse, but those are extremely rare and only hit the Earth on time scales of every several million to hundreds of millions of years.  Solar storms can damage satellites, and therefore satellite communications, but the only direct harm to electronics equipment on the ground comes from the loss of electrical power.
         
          Historic events
          1)  1859 Carrington event caused destruction on telegraph systems in Europe and North America.
          2)  geomagnetic storm  May 14-15 in 1921
          3)  Hydro-Quebec  1989
          4)  Telstar 401   1997
          5) A very large flare on Feb 14, 2011:
          6)  Feb 24. 2011 event: 
          7)  Comprehensive history of solar flares   1859 - 2003
      
         Discussion of solar cycles
         Classification of Solar Flares
       An excellent paper on Geomagnetic Storms - the physics, the effects, probabilities, mitigation. Published Jan, 2011

   Nuclear detonation above the atmosphere - EMP
          EPM radiation from nuclear space

          Historic events
          1)   US Starfish Prime  nuclear tests in 1962 over Johnston Island in the mid-Pacific.
          2)  Soviet Test 184 in October, 1962 over central Kazakhstan.
          3)  Bluegill, Checkmate and Kingfish high altitude tests of 1962, as well as the Hardtack-Teak and Hardtack-Orange tests of 1958


   In the Media:
       One Second After  novel by Dr. William R. Forstchen
        One Year After   novel by Dr. William R. Forstchen
         Day of Wrath    novel by Dr. William R. Forstchen
        The Final Day   novel by Dr. William R. Forstchen
       Talk radio interview With Dr. Forstchen in 8 parts 
        Lights Out  - A Cyber Attack   novel by Ted Koppel  
 

        The Sun Kings: The Unexpected Tragedy of Richard Carrington and the Tale of How Modern Astronomy Began
 

   Gov't Reports
      EMP Commission, Executive Summary   2004
       EMP Commission Report   Apr 2008
       Electromagnetic Pulse Threats in 2010
      MIL-HDBK-419A   29 DECEMBER 1987   GROUNDING, BONDING, AND SHIELDING FOR ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES
      ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE THREATS TO U.S. MILITARY AND CIVILIAN INFRASTRUCTURE  HEARING BEFORE THE MILITARY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE  COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OCTOBER 7, 1999
      FEMA CPG 2-17
     ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) AND TEMPEST PROTECTION FOR FACILITIES
     MIL-STD-188 is a series of U.S. military standards relating to telecommunications.

      On line summary of  reports available

  Discussion Forums:
 http://forums.qrz.com/showthread.php?215908-Electromagnetic-Pulse-A-National-Conference

 EMPact America web site

   EMP Engineering - commercial site with links to White Papers about HEMP and Geomagnetic Storms

   In the news:

   Aug 9, 2011  http://blog.heritage.org/2011/08/09/clear-and-present-danger-time-for-a-national-emp-awareness-day/
   Aug 11, 2011 http://blog.heritage.org/2011/08/11/morning-bell-the-devastating-threat-to-our-security/
   Aug 15, 2011  Heritage Foundation  National EMP Recognition Day --  1.5 hr program

Conclusion
   "Electromagnetic pulse weapons represent one of the most ominous threats to U.S. national security in the near term and offer potential adversaries an attractive asymmetric attack option to stymie U.S. expeditionary operations. Both nuclear and non-nuclear EMP technologies are proliferating and threaten U.S. operations in different ways and at different levels. In light of the emerging threats, it is clear that the United States should respond with a coordinated diplomatic, military, and civilian effort that addresses the most likely and most catastrophic EMP scenarios. The response should include a formal mandate classifying high-power nuclear EMP weapons as WMD, recursive hardening of critical expeditionary capabilities, near-term establishment of a credible EMP-hardened strike force, hardening critical components of the civilian infrastructure, large-scale military and civilian EMP response training, and legislated EMP hardness requirements for future military and civilian systems. A coordinated response can protect America’s electronic Achilles’ heel from EMP, ensure effectiveness of its military forces, and help guarantee viability of U.S. society for years to come."

        Preparation / Protection

Getting Prepared for an Electromagnetic Pulse Attack or Severe Solar Storm

http://www.backwoodshome.com/grid-down-battery-devices/

EMP and Faraday Cages
--many good links at the bottom of the page.

1986 QST articles:
http://www.arrl.org/files/file/Technology/tis/info/pdf/88615.pdf
http://www.arrl.org/files/file/Technology/tis/info/pdf/98622.pdf
http://www.arrl.org/files/file/Technology/tis/info/pdf/108638.pdf
http://www.arrl.org/files/file/Technology/tis/info/pdf/118630.pdf